Monday, March 30, 2020

Questions and Answers on Magadha Empire : Haryanka Dynasty (Bimbisara, Ajatashatru, Udayin))

Questions and Answers on Magadha Empire : Haryanka Dynasty (Bimbisara, Ajatashatru, Udayin)
Magadha Empire : Haryanka Dynasty
(Bimbisara, Ajatashatru, Udayin)



Magadha Empire


Question No. 01. When did the Magadha Empire in Ancient India exist?

Answer : The period from 544 BC to 321 BC  Magadha Empire in Ancient India was in existance.

Question No. 02. Which three dynasty ruled the Magadha in Ancient India?

Answer : These three dynasty as follows:
(1) Haryanaka dynasty (544 BC to 412 BC),
(2) Shishunaga dynasty (412 BC to 344 BC),
(3) Nanda dynasty (344 BC-321 BC).

Question No. 03. Who is considered as the founder of Magadha dynasty?

Answer : According to Hindu Epic Mahabharata, Brihadratha was the founder of the Magadha dynasty.

Question No. 04. What were the causes of Rise of Magadha in Ancient India?
OR, Why was Maganda become the strongest kingdom in Ancient India?

Answer : The causes of Rise of Magadha were as follows :
  • Magadha was surrounded by rivers on three sides, the Ganga, Son and Champa. This geographical position maked the region impregnable to enemies.

  • Natasha was located at Gangetic valley, thus the area had fortile soil and it also received enough rainfall.

  • Rajgir and Pataliputra, the two capitals of Magadha, were located in advantageous geographical location.

  • Magadha had huge copper and iron deposits in ancient India, which helped in preparation of effective and advanced weapons.

  • Because of its location surrounding rivers, Magadha could easily control trade.

  • Ambitious rulers and Unorthodox character of the society of Magadha helped in rising of Magadha.

Haryanka Dynasty (544 BC - 492 BC)


Question No. 05. What was the first important and powerful dynasty of Magadha in ancient India?

Answer : Haryanka dynasty was the first important and powerful dynasty of Magadha in ancient India.

Question No. 06. Who was the founder of Haryanka Dynasty?

Answer : Bimbisara was the founder of Haryanka Dynasty.

Question No. 07. What was the capital of Magadha Emperor Bimbisara?

Answer : The capital of Magadha Emperor Bimbisara was Rajgiri (Girivraja), which was surrounded by five hills.

Question No. 08. How long did Bimbisara ruled in Magadha?

Answer : Magadha king Bimbisara of Haryanka dynasty ruled for 52 years from 544 BC to 492 BC.

Question No. 09. Which ancient ruler of Magadha was known as 'Seniya' or 'Shrenik'?

Answer : Magadha ruler Bimbisara was known as Seniya or Shrenik, according to Jain text.

Question No. 10. Who defeated the Anga king Brahmadatta?

Answer : Magadha king Bimbisara defeated the Anga king Brahmadatta.

Question No. 11. Who was the frist king of Ancient India to have a standing army?

Answer : Magadha king of Haryanka dynasty Bimbisara was the first king to have a standing army.

Question No. 12. How many wives did Bimbisara have?

Answer : Bimbisara had foru wives – Mahakosaladevi, Chellana, Khema and Vaidehi.

Question No. 13. Do you know about the four wives of Magadha ruler Bimbisara?

Answer : The Emperor of Magadha, Bimbisara strengthened his own position by matrimonial alliance. He had four wives belonged to four royal family of ancient India.
  1. Mahakosaladevi – She belonged to the royal family of Kosala, daughter of the king of Kosala and sister of Prasenjit (Ruler of Kashi).
  2. Chellana – She was the daughter of the Lichchavi king of Vaisali and sister of Chetaka.
  3. Khema – She was the daughter of the king of Madra, Panjab.
  4.  Vaidehi – She was the daughter of Videhi king.

Question No. 14. Which wife of Bimbisara became a Buddhist Bhikkhuni (nun)?

Answer : Khema, the wife of the king Bimbisara of Magadha, became a Buddhist Bhikkhuni.

Question No. 15. Who was the personal physician of Magadha Emperor Bimbisara?

Answer : Jivaka was the personal physician of Magadha Emperor Bimbisara.

Question No. 16. Why did Bimbisara send his personal physician Jivaka to Ujjain?

Answer : Magadha Emperor Bimbisara sent his personal physician Jivaka to Ujjain for medical treatment of his rival Avanti king Chandapradyata Mahasena who was suffering from Jaundice (probably).

Question No. 17. Who sent an embassy to Bimbisara?

Answer : Pukku Sati, the Gandhara ruler of Taxila, sent an embassy to Bimbisara of Magadha.

Question No. 18. Who killed Bimbisara?

Answer : Haryanka King Bimbisara was imprisoned by his own son Ajatashatru and later killed by him.

Question No. 19. Which Emperor was contemporary to Gautama Buddha and Mahavira both?

Answer : Magadha Emperor Bimbisara of Haryanka dynasty was contemporary to Gautama Buddha and Mahavira both.

Question No. 20. Who were the parents of Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru?

Answer : Bimbisara was the father of Ajatashatru and Chellana was the mother of Ajatashatru.

Question No. 21. Who defeated Prasenjit, the king of Kosala?

Answer : Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru defeated his maternal uncle Prasenjit, king of Kosala and married his daughter Vijjira.

Question No. 22. How did Ajatashatru of Haryanka Dynasty come to the throne of Magadha Empire?

Answer : Ajatashatru imprisoned his father Bimbisara and later killed him to come to occupy the throne of Magadha Empire.

Question No. 23. How did Ajatashatru defeated the Vajji (Vaishali)?

Answer : Ajatashatru was able to defeat the king of Vajji (Vaishali - the capital of Lichchhavis) after a long period of 16 years, by sowing the seeds of disorder amongst the people of Vaishali.

Question No. 24. Who were Sunidha and Vatsakar?

Answer : Sunidha and Vatsakar were the diplomatic ministers of Ajatashatru's empire. They sewed the seeds of disorder amongst the people of Vaishali.

Question No. 25. What was Mahashilakantaka?

Answer : Mahashilakantaka was a Catapult that would throw heavy stones at a great distance. It was used by Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru in the battle with the Lichchhavi republic of Vaishali.

Question No. 26. What was Rathamushala?

Answer : Rathamushala was a kind of self- propelling, covered chariot that had rotating spears and blades attached to it's wheels. Rathamushala helped Ajatashatru to defeat the Lichchhavis.

Question No. 27. Which Haryanka king built the fort of Rajagriha?

Answer : Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru of Haryanka Dynasty built the fort of Rajagriha.

Question No. 28. Who built a watch-fort (Jaladurga) at Patali village?

Answer : The Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru built a watch-fort (Jaladurga) a village named Patali on the bank of river Ganges.

Question No. 29. Who was in the throne of Magadha when Gautama Buddha died?

Answer : Gautama Buddha died during the reign of Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru.

Question No. 30. Who patronised the First Buddhist Council?

Answer : Magadha Emperor Ajatashatru patronised the First Buddhist Council in 483 BC at Saptaparni cave, Rajagriha.

Question Nom 31. Who was the successor of Ajatashatru?

Answer : His son, Udayin (Udaybhadra) was the successor of Ajatashatru. King Udayin ruled over Magadha from 460 BC to 444 BC.

Question No. 32. Where did Udayin transfer the capital of Magadha Empire?

Answer : Udayin built a fort upon the confluence of the Ganga and the Son at Pataliputra (Patna) and transferred the capital of Magadha Empire from Rajagriha to the new city Pataliputra.

Question No. 33. Who was the successor of Udayin?

Answer : According to Buddhist chronicles, Udayin was succeded by Anuruddha

Question No. 34. Who was the last king of Haryanka Dynasty?

Answer : The last king of Haryanka Dynasty was Naga-Dashak. 

Question No. 35. Who overthrew the Haryanka Dynasty?

Answer : Shisunaga, a minister (Amatya) of Naga-Dashak overthrew the Haryanka Dynasty and established Shisunaga dynasty.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Questions and Answers on Indus Valley Civilisation

Harapan Civilisation
India Valley Civilisation


Question No. 01. What is the most accepted time period of Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : The most accepted time period of Indus Valley Civilisation is 2500 BC – 1700  BC, according to carbon-14 dating process.

Question No. 02. Why Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan Civilisation or Harappan culture?

Answer : Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan Civilisation or Harappan culture because the most evidence of the achievements of this civilisation have been excavated from Harappa.

Question No. 03. Who discovered Harappa in 1921?

Answer : Dayaram Sahani first discovered Harappa in 1921.

Question No. 04. Who discovered the civilisation at Mahenjodaro in 1922?

Answer : Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay (also known as RD Banarjee) discovered the civilisation of Mahenjodaro in 1922.

Question No. 05. Who named the ancient civilisation as "Harappan Civilisation" after the first discovered site at Harapppa?

Answer : John Marshall, the director-general of the Archaeological Survey of India named the ancient civilisation as "Harappan Civilisation".

Question No. 06. What is the meaning of the word "Mahenjodaro"?

Answer : The meaning of the word Mahenjodaro is "Mound of the dead".

Question No. 07. Which are the two sites of Indus Valley Civilisation located in Afganistan?

Answer : Mundigak and Shortughai are the two sites of Indus Valley Civilisation located at Afganistan.

Question No. 08. With which civilisation, the seals found at Mahenjodaro has similarities?

Answer : There are similarities between the seals found at Mahenjodaro and Sumeria.

Question No. 09. Where "the Great Granary" of the Indus Valley Civilisation has been discovered?

Answer : The Great Granary of the Indus Valley Civilisation ( 2 rows of 6 Granaries with brick platform) has been discovered at Harappa.

Question No. 10. What is the name of the Harappan site where traces of a horse have been found?

Answer : Traces of a horse have been found at Surkotada.

Question No. 11. Which harappan site was associated with Rice cultivation?

Answer : Archaeological discoveries said that Lothal was associated with Rice cultivation.

Question No. 12. What was the main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : The main occupation of the people of Indus Valley Civilisation was Agriculture.

Question No. 13. At which site of Indus Valley Civilisation was the Great Bath found?

Answer : The Great Bath was found at Mahenjodaro.

Question No. 14. What are the main characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : There are three main characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilisation :

  1. Underground Drainage System
  2. Use of Burnt Bricks
  3. Use of Lamp-post or Street lighting.


Question No. 15. Who were first to produce Cotton in the world?

Answer : The people of Indus Valley Civilisation were first to produce Cotton in the world.

Question No. 16. Where was a fragment of woven cotton cloth found?

Answer : A fragment of woven cotton cloth was found at Mahenjodaro.

Question No. 17. Indus Valley Civilisation belongs to which age?

Answer : Indus Valley Civilisation belongs to the Bronze age.

Question No. 18. Which popular metal was not known to the people of Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Iron was not known to the people of Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question No. 19. In which civilisation the earliest evidence of Silver in India is found?

Answer : The earliest evidence of Silver in India is found in Harapan Civilisation.

Question No. 20. Which kind of trade system was generally practised in Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Trade was based on barter system in Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question No. 21. What were the coastal towns of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Lothal, Surkotada, Sutkagendor, Prabspattan, Bhatrao, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Diamabad were the coastal towns of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question No. 22. What is the name of the artificial dockyard in Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Lothal was the artificial dockyard in the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Question No. 23. Which Harappan site had a dock?

Answer : Lothal

Question No. 24. Where was a bronze image of a nude woman dancer (identified as 'Devadasi') found?

Answer : A bronze image of a mude woman dancer was found at Mahenjodaro.

Question No. 25. Who was the Chief Female Deity in Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Mother Goddess (Goddess of Earth) – A terracotta figure where a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a woman.

Question No. 26. Who was the Chief Male Deity in Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : Pashupati Mahadeva (Proto-Shiva) – represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture on a low throne and having three faces and two horns. He is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhino and a buffalo and two deers appear at his feet.

Question No. 27. Which site is named as "Manchester of Indus Valley Civilisation"?

Answer : Lothal is named as "Manchester of Indus Valley Civilisation" because of its expansion of cotton trade.

Question No. 28. What are the main characteristics of script used in Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : The script used in Indus Valley Civilisation was quasi-pictographic in nature. Fish symbol is most represented. Overlapping and placing of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line and then left to right in the second line. This style is called Boustrophedon.

Question No. 29. The figure of the God that was depicted in the seal of Indus Valley Civilisation is _____________________ .

Answer : Pashupati Mahadeva.

Question No. 30. Where have the remaining of a wooden drain of Indus Valley Civilisation been found?

Answer : The remaining of a wooden drain have been found at Mahenjodaro.

Question No. 31. What is the latest site of Harappan Civilisation (i.e. Indus Valley Civilisation) discovered in Gujarat?

Answer : The largest site of Indus Valley Civilisation in Gujarat was discovered at Dholavira in the Kutch district.

Question No. 32. Which is the largest site of Indus Valley Civilisation?

Answer : The largest site of Indus Valley Civilisation is Rakhigarhi in Haryana, India.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Questions and Answers on Veda, Upanishada and other Vedic Literature

Questions and Answers on Veda, Upanishada and other Vedic Literature
Questions and Answers on Veda, Upanishada and other Vedic Literature



Question No. 01. In which Vedik literature was the Varna System discussed?

Answer : Varna system is discussed in the hymns called Purusha Sukta which is in the Ninth Mandal of Rig Veda.

Question No. 02. In which Vedic literature was the Gayatri Mantra written?

Answer : The Gayatri Mantra is in the Third Mandal of Rig Veda.

Question No. 03. Who were Hotra or Hotri?

Answer : The Rishi who were expert in Rig veda and had proper knowledge of Rig Veda were called Hotra or Hotri.

Question No. 04. Who were Udgatri?

Answer : The Rishi expert in Sam Veda were called Udgatri.

Question No. 05. Who were called Adhvaryu in Vedic Period?

Answer : Adhvaryu were those who were expert in the knowledge of Yajurveda.

Question No. 06. Which vedic literature is the origin of Indian Medical Science or Ayurveda?

Answer : Atharvaveda

Question No. 07. Which Vedic literature is the collection of sacrificial formulae?

Answer : Atharvaveda ( having 730 hymns with about 6,000 mantras)

Question No. 08. What are Vedanga?

Answer : The Vedanga are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic Literature :
(A) Shiksha contains knowledge of "Phonetics of Science of Pronunciation"
(B) Kalpa contains knowledge of "Rituals and ceremonies"
(C) Vyakarana contains knowledge of "Grammar"
(D) Nirukta contains knowledge of "Etymology (Origin of words)"
(E) Chhanda contains knowledge of "Metrics, rules of poetic composition"
(F) Jyotisha is all about "Astronomy".
Question No. 09. What kind of vedic literature are 'Brahmanas'?

Answer : The Brahmanas are the prose texts which contain the details about the meaning of Vedic hymns, their explanation and applications in daily life, and the stories of certain persons mentioned in different Vedic text.

Question No. 10. Which one is considered to be the oldest Veda?

Answer : Rig Veda is the oldest Veda.

Question No. 11. To whom is the Ninth Mandala of Rig Veda dedicated?

Answer : To the vedic deity 'Soma'.

Question No. 12. In Rig Veda how many times the name of River Ganga is mentioned?

Answer : Only one time.

Question No. 13. In Rig Veda how many times the name of River Yamuna is mentioned?

Answer : Three times.

Question No. 14. Which river is most described in Rig Veda?

Answer : Sindhu

Question No. 15. In Vedic Era, what is the name of the God/Goddess of Forest?

Answer : The name of the Goddess of forests is Akhyani.

Question No. 16. Which God is worshipped in vedic period for 'Storm'?

Answer : Marut

Question No. 17. The famous Gayatri mantra is addressed to which Vedic goddess?

Answer : The Gayatri mantra is addressed to the vedio goddess Savitri.

Question No. 18. From which book we came to know about 12 Ratninas or Civil Functionaries of Later Vedic Age?

Answer : We came to know about 12 Ratninas or Civil Functionaries of Later Vedio Age from Satapatha Brahmana.

Question No. 19. As mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana, who were the 12 Ratninas?

Answer : The 12 Ratninas were :
  1. Purohita,
  2. Mahishi,
  3. Yuvaraja,
  4. Suta/Sarathi,
  5. Bhagadugha,
  6. Akshavapa,
  7. Palagala,
  8. Govikarta,
  9. Senani,
  10. Gramani,
  11. Kshata,
  12. Sangrahitri.

Question No. 20. Which Upanishada gave the earliest reference to four ashramas (i.e. the stages) of life?

Answer : Jabala Upanishada

Question No. 21. In which Upanishada was the Yajnavalkya-Gargi dialogue written?

Answer : Vrihadarnyaka Upanishada.

Question No. 22. Where the term 'Shudra' was mentioned for the first time?

Answer : The term 'Shudra' was mentioned for the first time in the Tenth Mandala of Rig Veda.

Question No. 23. What is the other name of Vedic Literature?

Answer : Vedic Literature also known as Sruti (heard) and Smriti (memorized) as people in the Vedic age used to remember the Vedas by listening only.

Question No. 24. Who was the most important God in Rig Veda?

Answer : The most important God in Rig Veda was Indra.

Question No. 25. Which four vedic deities were mentioned in Boghazkoi inscription?

Answer : Four Vedic deities Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Nasatya were mentioned in the Boghazkoi inscription.

Question No. 26. Who was the God of morality during the Rig vedic times?

Answer : Varuna was the custodian of the moral and cosmic order.

Question No. 27. Who led the Confederacy of the ten kings against Sudasa?

Answer : Vishwamitra

Question No. 28. What was 'Dasarajana'?

Answer : As mentioned in the vedic literature, 'Dasarajana' was the battle of ten kings.

Question No. 29. Which Vedic Literature described Agni as 'Visvabheshaja'( cures all disease)?

Answer : Rig Veda

Question No. 30. How many times the word 'Jana' occures in Rig Veda?

Answer : The word 'Jana' (meaning Tribe) occures 275 times in the Rig Veda.


● To read about Aryans and Vedic Age
---> Click here.

● To read about Indus Valley Civilisation
---> Click here.

● To read about Gautama Buddha & Buddhism ---> Click here.

● To read about Buddhist Council and Buddhist ---> Click here.

● To read about Jainism and Vardhaman Mahavira ---> Click here.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Questions and Answers on Aryans and the Vedic Age

Questions and Answers on Aryans and the Vedic Age
Questions and Answers on Aryans and the Vedic Age




Question No. 01. Where was the original homeland of Aryans?

Answer : The location of the original homeland of the Aryans is still controversial. There are different theories associated with the Aryans and their origins. But the most accepted theory is that they migrated from Central Asia in several groups between 2000-1500 BC and settled in Eastern Afganistan, modern Pakistan, Panjab and Western Uttar Pradesh.

Question No. 02. What are the seven rivers of Sapta Sindhu?

Answer : The seven rivers are the Sindhu, it's five tributaries Vitasta, Askini, Vipas, Parushni, Sutudri and the Saraswati.

Question No. 03. What are the present name of Sindhu river and it's tributaries?

Answer : The present name of Sindhu river and it's tributaries are as follows :
Sindhu – Indus
Vitasta – Jhelum
Askini – Chenab
Vipas – Beas
Parushni – Ravi
Sutudri – Sutlej

Question No. 04. What was the occupation of Aryans?

Answer : The main occupation of Aryans were Agriculture and Postoratism. Actually Aryans followed a mixed economy consisting of both.

Question No. 05. Which instrument used in Agriculture is mentioned in Rig Veda?

Answer : Ploughshare is mentioned in Rig Veda. It was made up of wood and was drawn by the Ox.

Question No. 06. What is the term used for 'war' in Rig Veda?

Answer : The term used for 'war' in the Rig Veda is Govishthi (meaning 'search for cows').

Question No. 07. What was the standard unit of exchange in Vedic age?

Answer : Cow was the standard unit of exchange in Vedic age.

Question No. 08. What is 'Gavyuti'?

Answer : In Vedic period 'Gavyuti' was a unit of distance. It is the distance at which a cow's call or lowing can be heard.

Question No. 09. What were the Samiti and the Sabha in the Vedic period?

Answer : In the Vedic period, the Samiti was the National Assembly of the people. The Samiti mainly dealt with the policy decisions and political business. The Sabha was the Council of Elders of the tribe.

Question No. 10. Which was called 'Bali' in Vedic period?

Answer : In the Vedic period, Voluntary Offerings to the Chief (King/Rajan) by the people of tribe (Jana) is called 'Bali'.

Question No. 11. What were the different gold coins used in Vedic age?

Answer : The name of different Gold coins used in Vedic age were Nishka, Krishna and Satmana.

Question No. 12. Who was 'Bhagadugha'?

Answer : In the Vedic period, the 'Revenue Collector' was named as 'Bhagadugha'.

Question No. 13. Which was the most important grain grown in the Vedic age?

Answer : The most important grain grown in the Vedic age was Barley.

Question No. 14. In Vedic age which grain was referred as Vrihi?

Answer : Rice was referred as Vrihi in Vedic age.

Question No. 15. What term was used for 'Love Marriage' during Vedic period?

Answer : The term used for 'Love Marriage' was "Gandharva".

Question No. 16. How many types of marriage were in practice during the Vedic period?

Answer : Eight types of marriage were in practice during the Vedic age –
  1. Brahma
  2. Daiva
  3. Arsa
  4. Prajapati
  5. Gandharva
  6. Asura
  7. Rakshana
  8. Paishacha


Question No. 17. What is 'Asvamedha'?

Answer : 'Asvamedha' was an important rituals practised during Vedic period. A king performed the 'Asvamedha', which meant unquestioned control over the area, in which the Royal Horse ran uninterrupted.

Question No. 18. Who was the Supreme God in Later Vedic age?

Answer : In the Later Vedic age the Supreme God was Prajapati.

Question No. 19. Who become the "God of Shudras" in Later Vedic age?

Answer : Pushan became the "God of Shudras" as he was considered as responsible for well being of cattle.

Question No. 20. What were the main occupation of people in the later Vedic age?

Answer : In the later Vedic age, agriculture was the main occupation of the people.

Question No. 21. What was the term used in the Vedic age to denote a group of families?

Answer : The term used to denote a group of families in the Vedic age are 'Jana'.

Question No. 22. In the Rig Vedic age, after the King who was the next most important functionary of the State?

Answer : In the Rig Vedic age, the next most important functionary after the King was Purohita.




● To read about Gautama Buddha and Buddhism ---> Click here.


●● To read about Buddhist Council and Buddhism ---> Click here.

●●● To read about Jainism and Vardhama Mahavira ---> Click here.

◆ To read about Indus Valley Civilisation
---> Click here.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Questions and Answers on Buddhist Council, Buddhist and Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhist Council & Buddhism


Question No. 01 : In Buddhism, what is Dharmachakrapravartan?

Answer : According to Buddhism or Buddhist folklore, the first discourse of Gautama Buddha was held at Deer park in Sarnath near Varanasi with five ascetics present. It is called Dharmachakrapravartan.

Question No. 02 : How many stories are included in the Jatakas?

Answer : 550 stories


Question No. 03 : Gautama Buddha was brought up by whom?

Answer : As the mother of Gautama Buddha (Siddhartha) died after 7 days of his birth, he was brought up by stepmother Prajapati Gautami.

Question No. 04 : Where and when the first Buddhist Council was held?

Answer : The first Buddhist Council was held in the year 483 BC at Saptaparni Cave, Rajagriha.

Question No. 05 : Who was the Chairman and Royal Patron of First Buddhist Council at 483 BC?

Answer : Mahakassaapa was the Chairman and Ajatashatru of Haryanka Dynasty was the Royal Patron of first Buddhist Council.

Question No. 06 : Where and when the second Buddhist Council was held?

Answer : The second Buddhist Council was held in the year 383 BC at Vaishali.

Question No. 07 : Who was the Chairman and Royal Patron of second Buddhist Council at 383 BC?

Answer : Sabakami was the Chairman and Kalasoka of Shisunaga Dynasty was the Royal Patron of second Buddhist Council.

Question No. 08 : Where and when the third Buddhist Council was held?

Answer : The third Buddhist Council was held in the year 250 BC at Patliputra.

Question No. 09 : Who was the Chairman and Royal Patron of third Buddhist Council at  250 BC?

Answer : Mangaliputra Tissa was the Chairman and Ashoka Maurya of Maurya Dynasty was the Royal Patron of third Buddhist Council in 250 BC.

Question No. 10 : Where and when the fourth Buddhist Council was held?

Answer : The fourth Buddhist Council was held in the year AD 72 at Kundalvan, Kashmir.

Question No. 11 : Who was the Chairman, Vice Chairman and Royal Patron of Fourth Buddhist Council at AD 72?

Answer : Vasumitra was the Chairman, Ashwaghosha was the Vice Chairman and Kanishka of Kushan Dynasty was the Royal Patron of fourth Buddhist Council.

Question No. 12 : After which buddhist council were the Buddhists divided in two sects?

Answer : After the fourth Buddhist Council held in AD 72 at Kundalvan, Kashmir the buddhists were divided into two sects named as Hinayana and Mahayana.

Question No. 13 : Who was the greatest Buddhist commentator of the Buddhist canonical literature in ancient India?

Answer : Ashvaghosha

Question No. 14 : Who is represented by the phrase "The Light of Asia"?

Answer : The phrase "The Light of Asia" is applied to Gautama Buddha.

Question No. 15 : In which Buddhist text are the regulations for management of Sangha and rule of conduct for the monks written?

Answer : Vinaya Pitaka is the buddhist text where the regulations for management of Sangha and rule of conduct for the monks are written. The compilation of Vinaya Pitaka was first started at the First Buddhist Council by Upali.

Question No. 16 : Which buddhist monk influenced The Maurya Empire Ashoka?

Answer : Ashok Maurya was much influenced by Buddhist monk Upagupta.

Question No. 17 : Vardhaman Mahavira of Jainism and Gautama Buddha of Buddhism both preached their doctrines during the reign of same king. Who was the king?

Answer : Bimbisara

Question No. 18 : Which famous Indo Greek king embraced Buddhism?

Answer : The famous Indo Greek king who embraced Buddhism was Menander I Soter.

Question No. 19 : During the time of Harshavardhana, where the great Buddhist assembly was held?

Answer : During the time of Harshavardhana, the great Buddhist assembly was held at Nalanda.

Question No. 20 : In which writing Gautama Buddha has been described as 'an ocean of wisdom and compassion' ?

Answer : Buddha has been described as 'an ocean of wisdom and compassion' in the book named 'Amarakosa' written by the ancient Indian scholar Amarasimha.

Question No. 21. Who was the first king to have the image of Lord Gautama Buddha inscribed on his coins?

Answer : Kanishka was the first king to have the image of Lord Gautama Buddha inscribed on his coin.

Question No. 22. What was the state religion during the reign of Ashoka?

Answer : Buddhism became the state religion during the reign of Ashoka Maurya.

Question No. 23. The Fourth Buddhist Council compiled an encyclopedia of Buddhist philosophy. What is the name of this encyclopedia?

Answer : The Fourth Buddhist Council compiled an encyclopedia of Buddhist philosophy called 'Mahavibhasha Sutra'.

Question No. 24. In which country was the Buddhism first propagated outside India?

Answer : Srilanka

Question No. 25. What is the name of the edicts/inscriptions in which Ashoka expresses his faith in the Buddhist creed?

Answer : Bhabru Edict

Question No. 26. Who converted Kanishka to Buddhism?

Answer : Ashwaghosha converted Kanishka to Buddhism.

Question No. 27. Which language was adopted for preaching in Mahayana Buddhism?

Answer : The language adopted for preaching Mahayana Buddhism was Sanskrit.

Question No. 28. In which countries did Ashoka propagate Buddhism?

Answer : Ashoka propagated Buddhism in Burma, Nepal and Srilanka.

Question No. 29. Who was the founder of the Buddhist University at Nalanda?

Answer : The founder of Nalanda University at Badagaon, Bihar was Kumargupta- I .

Question No. 30. Who and where found the Vikramshila University?

Answer : Pala ruler Dharmapala founded the Buddhist University Vikramshila at Bhagalpur, Bihar.



Extra dose :

1 . To read more Questions and Answers about Gautama Buddha and Buddhism, click here.

2. To read about Jainism and Vardhaman Mahavira, click here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Questions and Answers on Gautam Buddha and Buddhism

Questions and Answers on Gautam Buddha and Buddhism
Questions and Answers
on Gautam Buddha and Buddhism

Question No. 01. Who was the founder of 'Buddhism'?
Answer : Gautam Buddha (he is also called 'Sakyamuni' or 'Tathagata'.)



Question No. 02. In which Kshatriya family, Gautam Buddha was born in 563 BC ?
Answer : Gautam Buddha was born in 563 BC on the vaisakha purnima day at Lumbini (now in Nepal) in the Sakya Kshatriya clan (Sakya tribe of Kapilavastu).

Question No. 03. Who were the parents of Gautam Buddha?
Answer : The father of Gautama Buddha  was Suddhodhon (Saka ruler) and his mother was Mahamaya (some says Mayadevi). But his mother died after 7 days of his birth and he was brought up by stepmother Prajapati Gautami.

Question No. 04. What is the childhood name of Gautam Buddha?
Answer : The childhood name of Gautam Buddha is Siddhartha.

Question No. 05. Do you know the name of Gautam Buddha's wife and son?
Answer : At the age of 16, Gautam Buddha (then Siddhartha) got married to Yashodhara and enjoyed the married life for 13 years. He had a son named Rahul.

Question No. 06. What is the significant meaning of the symbol "Lotus and Bull" according to Buddhism?
Answer : The birth of Gautam Buddha is symbolised by "Lotus and Bull".

Question No. 07. What is the significant meaning of the symbol "Horse" according to Buddhism?

Answer : The symbol "Horse" represents the Great Renunciation or Mahabhinishkramana of Gautam Buddha (Siddhartha).

Question No. 08. At which age Siddhartha (Gautam Buddha) left his family, his land and everything?

Answer : At the age of 29 years to be a mendicant (a wandering ascetic); eventually he became a religious leader for the people.

Question No. 09. At which age Gautam Buddha got enlightenment?

Answer : At the age of 35 years.

Question No. 10. In which country the largest Buddhist Temple is situated?

Answer : Indonesia (Borobudur temple at Magelang, Indonesia).

Question No. 11. What is 'Jatakas'?
Answer : Jatakas are the earliest Buddhist literature which deal with the stories of the various births of Gautam Buddha.

Question No. 12. Who was the personal physician of Gautam Buddha?
Answer : Jeevaka

Question No. 13. Which monk did influence Ashoka to embrace Buddhism?
Answer : Upa Gupta

Question No. 14. Who was the teacher of Gautam Buddha?
Answer : Alara Kalama (from whom he learnt the technique of meditation).

Question No. 15. What is 'Stupas' in Buddhism?
Answer : Stupas are the places which contain the relics of Buddha.

Question No. 16. In which language were Buddhist literatures originally written?
Answer : Pali

Question No. 17. Which country has the most of the Buddhists (in case of total number of people) in the world?
Answer : China (Approximately half of the world's Buddhist live in China)

Question No. 18. Where is the statue of 'Leshan Giant Buddha' located?
Answer : In China

Question No. 19. Which state in India has the largest number of Buddhists?
Answer : Maharashtra

Question No. 20. Which book is the main source of the Buddhist teachings?
Answer : Tripitakas

Question No. 21. By whom the book 'Buddhacharita' was written?
Answer : Buddhacharita is written by Aśvaghoṣa on the life of Gautam Buddha.

Question No. 22. At which place Gautam Buddha got enlightenment?
Answer : Under a Pipal tree on the banks of Niranian (Phalgu) river at Uruvella (Bodh Gaya) on the 49th day of meditation.

Question No. 23. In which place Gautam Buddha died?
Answer : At the age of 80 years Gautam Buddha died at Kusinagar in Uttar Pradesh.

Question No. 24. Who spread Buddhism in Korea?
Answer : Wonhyo Daisa

Question No. 25. What is 'Nirvana'?
Answer : According to Buddhism, Nirvana is the Supreme realization of the end of suffering.

Question No. 26. How many noble truths are there in Buddhism? What are these?
Answer : According to Buddhism, there are four noble truths which are known as Arya Satyas. These four Noble truths are –
(1) Sabbam Dukkam i.e. The world is full of sorrows
(2) Dwadash Bidan/Pratitya Samutpada i.e. The cause of sorrow is desire
(3) Nirvana i.e. All sorrows can be removed, if desires are conquered.
(4) Astangika Marga i.e. By following the 8-fold path, this can be achieved.

Question No. 27. What is Eight-fold path?
Answer : In Buddhism, Eight-fold path consists of -
(a) Right Understanding
(b) Right Thought
(c) Right Speech
(d) Right Action
(e) Right Livelihood
(f) Right Effort
(g) Right Mindfulness
(h) Right Concentration

Question No. 28. In Buddhism, what is symbolized by 'Bodhi tree'?
Answer : Bodhi tree is a symbol of Nirvana or Sambodhi (Enlightenment).

Question No. 29. What is Mahaparinirvana?
Answer : The death of Gautam Buddha – he died at the age of 80 in 483 BC at Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh.

Question No. 30. What is Tripitakas?

Answer : The sacred book Buddhism is called the Tripitaka (Tipitaka in Pali). It is written in an ancient Indian language called 'Pali' which is very close to the language that the Gautam Buddha himself spoke. It has three parts as follows:
(1) Vinaya Potaka - Rules of monastic discipline for monks,
(2) Sutta Pitaka - Collection of Buddha's sermon,
(3) Abhidhamma Pitaka - Philosophies of Buddha's teachings.


Read more 30 questions and answers about Buddhism : Click here.

Read about Jainism and Vardhaman Mahavira :  Click here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Questions & Answers on Jainism and Vardhaman Mahavira

Questions and Answers on Jainism and Vardhaman Mahavira
Questions & Answers on Jainism
And Vardhaman Mahavira


Question No. 01. Who was the founder of Jainism?
Answer : Rishabhnath was the founder of Jainism.


Question No. 02. In which ancient mythological book Rishabhnath is described as an incarnation of God Narayana?
Answer : In 'Vishnu Purana' and in 'Bhagavata Purana'.


Question No. 03. How many Tirthankars were there in Jainism?
Answer : 24


Question No. 04. Who was the first Tirthankara?
Answer : Rishabhnath


Question No. 05. In 'Rig Veda' how many jain Tirthankara's name is written?
Answer : Rig Veda mentions two jain Tirthankaras and they are Rishabh Dev and Arishtanemi.


Question No. 06. Who was the 23rd Tirthankara in Jainism?
Answer : Parsavanath


Question No. 07. Who was the 24th or last Tirthankara?
Answer : Vardhaman Mahavira


Question No. 08. When and where Vardhaman Mahavira was born?
Answer : Last Tirthankar Vardhaman Mahavira was born in 540 BC at Kundalgram near Vaishali in Bihar.


Question No. 09. Which emblem were represented Rishavanath, Parsavanath and Vardhaman Mahavira in Jainism?
Answer : Rishavanath  was represented by Bull, Parsavanath by Serpent, and Vardhaman Mahavira by Lion.


Question No. 10. In Pali texts, who is written to as "Nigantha Nataputta"?
Answer : Vardhaman Mahavira


Question No. 11. What was the name of the river, at the bank of which Vardhaman Mahavira attained 'Kaivalaya'?
Answer : Rijupalika


Question No. 12. According to some Jain writings, who was son-in-law and first disciple of Tirthankara Vardhaman Mahavira?
Answer : Jamali


Question No. 13. What is the name of Vardhaman Mahvira's wife?
Answer : The name of Vardhaman Mahavira's wife is Yashoda.


Question No. 14. Where was Parsavanath, the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism born?
Answer : Kashi, India


Question No. 15. What is called to the followers of Parsavanath?
Answer : Nirganth


Questions & Answers on United States of America (USA) and American President

United States of America (USA) and American President
Questions & Answers on
United States of America (USA)
And American President

Question No. 01 : In which year, Independence Day of United States of America was first established as a holiday?

Answer : In 1870, 4th July was proclaimed as a national holiday by Congress and in 1938 it was also established as a paid holiday for federal employees.

Question No. 02 : Who was the first president of United States of America to live in the White House?

Answer : On November 1, 1800, president John Adams took up residence in White House for the first time in the history of United States of America.

Question No. 03 : What do the colours of the American Flag symbolize?

Answer : There are three colours in American Flag :
Red – symbolizes Hardness and Valor,
White – symbolizes Purity and Innocence,
Blue – represents Vigilance, Perseverance and Justice.
Question No. 04 : Which American President was born on the date of Independence day of the United States of America (USA)?

Answer : Calvin Coolidge was the only American President born on the Independence day of America(USA). He was born on July 4, 1872.

Question No. 05 : How many American President died on the Independence day of United States of America i.e. 4th July?

Answer : Three American President died on Fourth of July. They are Thomas Jefferson (1826), John Adams (1826) and Jame Monroe (1831).

Question No. 06 : What was the first capital of the United States of America?

Answer : New York City was the first capital of the United States of America where George Washington took the oath of office as first american president on April 30, 1789 from the balcony of the old City Hall.

Question No. 07 : Who was the only president of United States of America to serve two separate terms in office?

Answer : Grover Cleveland was the only president of United States of America to serve two separate terms of office.

Question No. 08 : There are two major political parties in the United States of America. Who are they?

Answer : The Republican & The Democrats

Question No. 09 : How many judges are there in the Supreme Court of United States of America?

Answer : Nine (09)

Question No. 10 : Which battle is considered the turning point of the American Revolution?

Answer : Battle of Saragota


Question No. 11 : Which American President used the phrase "speak softly and carry a big stick"?

Answer : Theodore Roosevelt

Question No. 12 : The United States' first subway line was opened in what city in 1897?

Answer : Boston

Question No. 13 : Which country gifted The Statue of Liberty to the United States of America from?

Answer : France

Question No. 14 : In United States of America, what was the first state to allow women the right of vote?

Answer : Wyoming

Question No. 15 : Which decade did the California Gold Rush peak?

Answer : 1850s

Question No. 16 : Before there was a United States of America, there were colonies owned by Great Britain. How many colonies were there?

Answer : 13 colonies – New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Corolina, South Corolina and Georgia.

Question No. 17 : Who was the first president of the United States of America?

Answer : George Washington

Question No. 18 : What american president succeeded Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated?

Answer : Andrew Johnson

Question No. 19 : In which city, was the Declaration of Independent ( United States of America) signed?

Answer : Philadelphia (August 2, 1776 at the Pennsylvania State House, Independence Hall)

Question No. 20 : Who is the only USA president to serve for three consecutive terms?

Answer : Franklin Delano Roosevelt


Question No. 21 : In case of United States of America, who is referred to as the "Father of the Constitution"?

Answer : James Madison is referred to as the "Father of the Constitution" as he wrote the documents that set the basis for the Constitution of United States of America.

Question No. 22 : Who wrote the Declaration of Independence for United States of America?

Answer : Thomas Jefferson (June, 1776)

Question No. 23 : Who was the USA President at the time of the Civil War?

Answer : Abraham Lincoln

Question No. 24 : In which year was the Gold discovered in California?

Answer : Gold was discovered at John Sutter's Mill on January 24, 1848.

Question No. 25 : What famous Government Building of United States of America was burned by the British during the war of 1812?

Answer : The White House

Question No. 26 : How many verses does "The Star Spangled Banner" have?

Answer : Four (04)

Question No. 27 : Which USA president was said to have been too honest to lie to his father about chopping down a cherry tree?

Answer : George Washington

Question No. 28 : Who is credited with the original American Flag design?

Answer : Besty Ross

Question No. 29 : Which USA president was the first to have his voice recorded and ordered to install electric lights in the White House?

Answer : Benjamin Harrison

Question No. 30 : Which president was the first to face an impeachment vote in the USA Senate?

Answer : Andrew Johnson