Saturday, April 25, 2020

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) : Sources, Functions in our Body, Daily Requirements, Deficiency Symptoms (Beriberi)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) : Sources, Functions in our Body, Daily Requirements, Deficiency Symptoms (Beriberi)

Beriberi
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)


Vitamin B1 is a part of the Vitamin B complex. Vitamin B1, also known as Thiamine, is vital for completing many body functions such as the nervous system and also the brain functioning. It is a water soluble vitamin responsible for energy metabolism, which means that it enables body to transform foods (Glucose, Amino Acids and Lipids) into energy. Vitamin B1 was first discovered from brown rice by Kasimir Funk, a polish biochemist in 1912.
Insufficient intake of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) results in various ailments in the body. It is must to track the proper intake of this essential nutrient.

Sources Of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) :

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is one of the most essential vitamines required by the body. A deficiency of Vitamin B1 may lead to loss of appetite and weight, constipation, fatigue and depression. As Vitamin B1 is Water Soluble Vitamin, it is not stored in our body. So we have to take it through proper diet. Thiamine or Vitamin B1 occurs in all natural foods, although in small amounts. There are several food sources which are rich in Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). Here, we discuss about some of them.
Different types of seeds, brown rice, beans, oatmeal, asparagus are rich sources of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).
  • Rice bran - 2.8 mg / 100 g
  • Oat bran - 1.2 mg / 100 g
  • White rice - 0.9 mg / 100 g
  • Black beans - 0.9 mg / 100 g
  • Soya beans - 0.8 mg / 100 g
  • Lentils - 0.9 mg / 100 g
  • Oats - 0.8 mg / 100 g
  • White beans - 0.7 mg / 100 g
  • Pinto beans - 0.7 mg / 100 g
  • Mung beans - 0.6 mg / 100 g
Beans belongs to the family of the legumes. They have a lot of nutrients present in them. All the vitamins from Vitamin A to Vitamin K are present in Beans. As you see above, they are also high in Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).

Seeds are the storehouse of energy. For a plant, to germinate all the essential nutrients it required are placed in a seed. For this reason, seeds are high in nutrients. Seeds contain good amounts of Vitamin B1 in them which are regularly required by the body. For example,
  • Flax seeds - 1.6 mg / 100 g
  • Sunflower seeds - 1.5 mg / 100 g
  • Sesame seeds - 1.2 mg / 100 g
Nuts are rich in nutrients and minerals. They contain the right amount of Vitamin B1 and helps in restoring the same to the body with a regular intake of it.
Vitamin B1 thiamine

However, it is better to be eaten nuts in dried and raw form. The cooked or roasted nuts loss about 30 percent of Vitamin B1.

  • Pine Nuts - 1.2 mg / 100 g
  • Macadamia Nuts - 1.2 mg / 100 g
  • Pistachio Nuts - 0.9 mg / 100 g
  • Peanuts - 0.7 mg / 100 g
  • Hazelnuts - 0.6 mg / 100 g
  • Brazilnuts - 0.6 mg / 100 g
Green peas also rich in Vitamin B1. They can help in maintaining effective gut health as it is full of fiber. It also contains proper amount of nutrients and minerals.

Acorn Squash is high in Vitamin B1 which is essential for the body regularly.

Cooked Asparagus has all the essential nutrients and minerals. It helps to control the blood sugar levels in the body. It also has good amount of Vitamin B1 in it.

Most meat products like poultry, pork, and fishes are good sources of Vitamin B1.

Functions Of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) In Our Body :

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) enables the body to use carbohydrates as energy. It is essential for glucose metabolism. In presence of Mg++ ion, Thiamine or Vitamin B1 serves as a catalyst in the conversation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is involved in many other metabolic activities.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) also plays a key role in nerve, muscle, and heart-functions. It has a major role to initiate nerve impulse propagation.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) may reduce the risk of cataract. It is beneficial for the health of eyes.

Daily Requirements Of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) In Our Body :

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is 1.2 mg for males and 1.1 mg for females over the age of 18 years. It is also recommend that pregnant or breastfeeding women of any age should take 1.4 mg of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) each day.

Deficiency Symptoms Of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) :

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiencies are relatively rare, as it is plentiful in daily normal diets. But a deficiency of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) can cause Beriberi.

Beriberi : Beriberi is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). There are four types of Beriberi–
  • Dry Beriberi - It is mainly a neurological disorder. It generally affects the Perpheral Nervous System. Mental confusion, decreased muscle functions (particularly in lower legs), tingling or loss of felling in the feet and hands, difficulty in speaking, vomiting, involuntary eye movements are the symptoms of dry beriberi.
  • Wet Beriberi - It is mainly a cardiovascular disturbance. Shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, swollen lower legs, anorexia nervosa, increase of lactic acid and pyruvic acid in blood, polyneuritis, etc. are the symptoms of wet beriberi.
  • Mixed Beriberi - It is both the neurological and cardiovascular disturbance.
  • Infantile Beriberi - It generally arises in infants of Vitamin B1 deficient mothers.
Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome is developed in alcoholic and narcotic abusers due to insufficient intake or defective absorption of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine). Loss of memory, apathy and uncontrolled to and fro movements of eyeballs are the main symptoms.

*Read more about Vitamins :
1. Definition of Vitamin, Provitamin, Antivitamin, Types and Functions of Vitamins

2. Vitamin A : Sources, Functions, Deficiency Symptoms

3.Vitamin D : Sources, Functions, Deficiency Symptoms

4. Vitamin C : Sources, Functions, Deficiency Symptoms

5.Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) : Sources, Functions, Daily Requirement, Deficiency symptoms

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